Thursday, August 4, 2011

APA-style, random stuff


This pdf gives a very useful overview on the use of latin abbreviations in APA manuscripts (e.g., cf., etc.).

Use abbreviations when: it is conventional (i.e., the reader is more familiar with the abbreviation than with the complete form), or if considerable space can be saved and cumbersome repetition can de avoided.

For plurals of abbreviations, add -s (no italicized, no apostrophe). Don't make units of measurement plural. Write pp. for pages.

  1. The first word in a complete sentence. Also capitalize the first word after a colon. Do not begin a sentence with a statistical term, like p or t.
  2. Major words in titles and headings (do not capitalize titles of books and articles in reference listst).
  3. Proper nouns and trade names.
  4. Nouns followed by numerals or letters (e.g., Table 1, Grant AB12345, Experiment 1, Item 1). Do not capitalize nouns that denote a part of books or tables (e.g., column 1, page 1), or nouns that precede variables (e.g., subject j, item i).
  5. Titles of tests
  6. Names of conditions or groups in an experiment.
  7. Names of factors (e.g., Factor 1, Cognitive factor). Do not capitalize effects or variables, unless they appear with a multiplication sign in an interaction (e.g., Year x Foodtype interaction).


For works of 1 author, write the authors last name and year of publication.

For works of 2 authors, write the authors' last name an year of publication. 

For works written by 3, 4 or 5 authors, write all names the first time you refer to the work. Afterwards, use et al.

Always use et al. for works written by more than 6 authors.

Use the Oxford comma in all citations and references (e.g., "Johnson, Johnson, and Johnson (2010) wrote...").

Use '&' in the reference list, and in parenthesized citations; use 'and' in other cases.

If you refer to the same work more than once in the same paragraph, omit the year of publication in the in-text citation.

If you cite two or more works within the same parentheses alphabetically, and in the same order in which they appear in the reference list.

Use author's initials in the text when you cite authors with the same surname in the manuscript (even if the years of publication differ), to help the reader discriminate between them.

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